Canadian urological society advocate PSA testing in all men above 50 years, and 40 years if positive family history
The Canadian urological society advocate PSA testing in all men 50 years and older. They also acknowledge that in men with risk factors for prostate cancer especially positive family history or African descent that testing should begin at 40. In Canada in 2011, excluding skin cancer, prostate cancer is the commonest male cancer with 25,500 new cases and 4100 deaths in that year. They acknowledge that not all prostate cancers need treatment and some can be actively watched since overtreatment leads to poor quality of life from urinary, sexual and bowel side effects.