This randomized study proved that early prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy surgery especially below the age of 65, affords a 6% reduction in prostate cancer specific death at 13 years follow up. This was compared to a group who had no immediate treatment and were watched. The benefit was not seen in men older than 65 because they had other competing causes of death. The main side effects of surgery were impotence and urinary leakage. The message from tis trial is that men younger than 65 with T1 or T2 early prostate cancer are afforded a reduced risk of dying from prostate cancer when treated by surgery.