The urinary bladder stores urine. It is an integral component of the urinary tract, lying within the pelvis, behind the pubic bone. In males, the prostate makes up the outflow tract, and the urethra or “water pipe” passes directly through the prostate then connecting to the bladder. The ureters lie on either side of the back muscles to connect the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Pathologic conditions which involve the bladder are; bladder cancer, bladder stones, bladder diverticulum, enlarged prostate, OAB – Overactive bladder, and infections.
Urologic procedures that relate to the bladder include; cystoscopy, biopsy and or diathermy, drug installation including chemotherapy agents for bladder cancer, or Botox for overactive bladder, open or robotic diverticulectomy, ureteric re-implantation, open prostate surgery either for enlarged prostate or prostate cancer, bladder stone Laser.
The assessment of the bladder includes; urine tests – either culture to exclude infection, or cytology for the assessment of cancer cells, cystoscopy, pressure-flow urodynamics, Ultrasound or CT scan.