Kidney stones form within the kidney related to dietary, fluid and genetic reasons. If they migrate into the ureter and or into bladder, they cause excruciating pain and the patient presents to the Emergency Department.
Emergency stone presentations can be complex, as the patient requires opioid pain relief, possible hospital admission, and possible surgery. Infections can further complicate matters.
Elective stone presentations to the rooms are often more straight forward, but might also require procedures, some of which are staged. Small stones might be monitored only. Uric acid stones can be dissolved with medicines.
Calcium stones, the more common variety, form because of a combination of; poor water intake, low dietary citrate levels, or high oxalate levels, and or high salt and high protein levels.
The clinical assessment of stone disease is by X-ray, CT scan or Ultrasound. Blood and urine tests allow the Urologist to understand the underlying metabolic problem, in order to prevent future attacks.