Urological surgery includes operating on the scrotum and testes. The relevant conditions to consider include;
Hydrocele – a fluid swelling around the testis, caused by inflammation, although a groin hernia as the cause of scrotal swelling should be excluded as part of the assessment.
Varicocele – a ‘bag of worms’ feeling around the testicle caused by varicose veins, where the venous valves are incompetent and not returning venous blood to the central vein- the IVC, inferior vena cava.
Epididymal cysts – are benign cysts on the epididymis, which is found atop and behind the testicle, and is an important sperm transit structure.
Testicular cancer – is a common male cancer between the ages of 20 to 40, and is a hard lump felt on the ball. This requires urgent Urologist specialist review.
Sebaceous cysts – cysts in the scrotal skin related to hair follicles, which at times become red and infected.